Glossary of Islamic Terms

Allahu akbar Allah is the greatest
'asr the afternoon prayer of four rakat
fajr the morning prayer of two rakat before sunrise
hadith a narration attributed to Muhammad (saws)
Al-hamdulillah praise to Allah
imam the leader of the salah
iman faith
insh'a Allah if it be Allah's will (God willing)
'isha the night salah of four rakat after dusk
la ilaaha illa Allah there is no deity except Allah
maghrib the dusk salah of three rakat right after the sun sets
masha' Allah it is Allah's will (an expression said when one sees something he/she likes)
masjid mosque
qiyam standing in the salah
radhiallahu 'anhu/ha/hum may Allah be please with him/her/them
rak'ah a unit of the formal prayer made of one qiyam and two sujuds
sadaqa an act of charity, monetary or otherwise
As-salamu alaykum wa rahmatullahi wa barakatuhu peace be upon you and the mercy and blessings of Allah 
salallahu alayhi wa sallam prayers and peace be upon him (said after the mention of Muhammad and sometimes abbreviated "saws")
salah the formal prayer done five times a day
sawm fasting
subhanAllah glorified is Allah (expression said when one is amazed)
sujud a prostration to Allah in which the toes, knees, palms, and forehead and nose touch the ground
sunnah an action of Muhammad (saws)
thuhr the noon prayer of four rakat just after the sun begins to decline (the "th" in Thuhr is pronounced like the "th" in the word "the")
witr a highly valued optional prayer of any odd number of rakat performed after 'isha and before fajr.
zakkat prescribed charity on one's wealth if he or she has enough